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저장하였습니다.

홍콩은 재해재난 예방에 있어서는 확실히 한국보다 Advanced 한 시스템을 가지고 있다. 이는 사회 구성원 한명 한명의 안위와 재해재난으로부터의 안전을 추구하기 위함이라 하겠다.  시간이 좀 있으신 분들은 아래 영문 설명 및 첨부 PDF 화일을 일독하시면 보다 완전한 이해를 하실 수 있다.

(이미지 출처: http://english.people.com.cn/200608/04/images/xin_530803032212217124225.jpg)

다만 이 글은 비와 바람으로 인하여, 홍콩에서는 어떤 경우에 일개 샐러리맨이 기대하지 않던 조기 퇴근과 불(不)출근의 호사로움을 즐길 수 있는 지에 대해 초점을 맞춘 매우 삐딱한 글이라 할 수 있겠다.

성격 급하신 분들은 다음 Andy Jin™ 요약을 보시면 되겠다. 물론 본인도 설렁설렁 읽고, 경험에 근거한 요약이기때문에 틀릴 수도 있음을 미리 밝힌다. 홍콩에서 실제적으로 주요하게 접하게 되는 기상 경보는 비와 태풍(바람)이다.

 강우는 황색 → 적색 → 흑색 순으로 강도가 커지고,
 태풍은 1 → 3 → 8 → 9 → 10 이상 순으로 강도가 올라간다.

여기서 직장인과 학생들에게 중요한 것은 강우의 흑색 경보와 태풍의 8호 경보 이상이다. 쉽게 말하면, "조기 퇴근(하교)" 혹은 아예 "출근(등교)하지 않는 경우" 에 결정적인 요건은 흑색강우경보 와 태풍8호경보 이상인 것이다.

(1) 만약 출근 전, 상기 (흑색 강우, 태풍 8호) 경보 발령시에는 학교 회사 모두 안 나간다.
(2) 업무(학업)중, 상기 경보 발령시에는 하던 일을 멈추고 바로 퇴근(하교)한다.
     * 더욱이 상기 경보에 다다를 정도면 예비 경보를 발령하는데, 예비 경보가 발령되면 몸이 불편하거나 귀가 루트가 위험할 수 있는 사람은 언제든 퇴근하여도 좋다.

홍콩에 있는 동안 흑색 강우 경보 보다는 태풍 경보를 더욱 자주 접하였다. 그럼 8호 태풍 경보의 충분조건은 무엇인가? 홍콩 및 홍콩 해협에서 시속 63-117 km 속도(최대 180km)로 지속적으로 부는 강풍이 있거나 곧 예상될 경우 이다. 실은 어제도 하필이면 저녁 6시반에 태풍 8호 경보가 발령되어, 수 많은 홍콩의 샐러리맨들에게 작은 아쉬움을 안겨주기도 하였다.



첨부: 태풍 및 호우 경보 정도에 따른 Guide (홍콩 노동부)

Rainstorm.pdf




참조: 홍콩 기상관련 주요 경보 심볼 및 그 의미 (http://www.hko.gov.hk/textonly/explain/intro.htm)



(원문 출처: 홍콩정부, http://www.hko.gov.hk/informtc/tcsignal.htm )

Hong Kong's Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals

Tropical Cyclones :
Tropical cyclones normally occur during the months of May to November, and are particularly prevalent during September.

Tropical cyclone advisory bulletins and/or warnings are issued by the Hong Kong observatory whenever a tropical cyclone centres within 800 km of Hong Kong poses a threat to the territory.

These advisory bulletins include the tropical cyclone warning signal issued and its significance, the latest position and expected movement of the centre of the tropical cyclone, information on the wind strength, rainfall and sea level in the territory and advice on precautionary measures.

Simply knowing what signal is issued is not enough. You should also listen to radio and TV broadcasts of weather bulletins and follow the advice given. Tropical Cyclone Signals are to warn you of the threat of winds associated with the tropical cyclone. Because of topographical conditions, local winds may be substantially different from those in the harbour areas. For your own safety, you should stay alert at all times and be prepared to deal with changing conditions at short notice. Remember that areas that may have been previously sheltered may quickly become exposed.

Neither should you relax precautions when the tropical cyclone is moving away from Hong Kong, as high winds are likely to persist for some time. You should stay indoors where it is safe until winds moderate.

Information on other hazards associated with the tropical cyclone will be included in warning bulletins. When necessary, separate warnings of heavy rain, flooding and landslips will be issued.


History of the Hong Kong Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals :
Starting from 1884, a system of drum, ball and cone was employed to give information to the mariners in the harbour on the existence and approximate location of a tropical cyclone. For the local public a typhoon gun was used to warn imminent gale force winds brought about by tropical cyclones. In 1907, explosive bombs replaced the typhoon gun as they made louder sounds and were considered an improvement over the firing of a gun. The last typhoon boom was exploded in 1937.

In 1917, the first numbered signal system geared to the warning of wind conditions in Hong Kong was introduced. The numbers were from 1 to 7 with numbers 2 to 5 signifying gale force winds expected from the four quadrants, namely N, S, E and W.

In 1931, the signals were amended to 1 to 10 with signals 2 and 3 signifying strong winds from SW and SE respectively, signal 4 being a non-local signal, signals 5 to 8 signifying gales from the four quadrants, namely NW, SW, NE ad SE, signal 9 signifying increasing gales and signal 10 indicating the threat of hurricane force winds. Signals 2, 3 and 4 were used intermittently afterwards and were discontinued in the late 1930s.

In 1956, the No. 3 Strong Wind Signal was introduced between the No. 1 Stand-by Signal and the gale signals.

Starting from 1 January 1973, signals 5 to 8 were replaced by 8 NW, 8 SW, 8 NE and 8 SE respectively so as to avoid misunderstanding by the public. This system has been in use ever since.

Originally, the signals were intended mainly for the benefits of mariners but have over the years been also adopted for use by the public. Starting from 1987, the Observatory issued the Pre-No.8 Special Announcement to give an advance notice to the public when the No.8 signal is expected within two hours.


Meaning of Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals and What you should do :

 The Standby Signal No. 1 Logo This is a stand-by signal, indicating that a tropical cyclone is centred within about 800 km of Hong Kong and may affect the territory.

Action - If you are planning an outing, remember that there is a tropical cyclone near Hong Kong which may affect your plans. Beware that strong winds may occur over offshore waters. Listen to radio and TV broadcasts or browse the Observatory’s website on the progress of the tropical cyclone.

 The Strong Wing Signal No. 3 Logo Strong wind is expected or blowing generally in Hong Kong near sea level, with a sustained speed of 41-62 km/h (kilometres per hour), and gusts which may exceed 110 km/h, and the wind condition is expected to persist. Winds are normally expected to become generally stronger in Hong Kong within 12 hours after the issue of this signal. Winds over offshore waters and on high ground may reach gale force.

Action - Secure all loose objects, particularly those on balconies and rooftops. Flower pots and other objects likely to be blown away should be taken indoors. Secure hoardings, scaffoldings and temporary structures. Drains should be cleared to avoid blockage and overflows. Stay away from the shoreline and not to engage in water sports. Fishing vessels should seek shelter without delay. Listen to radio and TV announcements and browse the Observatory’s website for further information about the tropical cyclone.

 The No. 8 Northwest Gale or Storm Signal Logo  The No. 8 Southwest Gale or Storm Signal Logo  The No. 8 Northeast Gale or Storm Signal Logo  The No. 8 Southeast Gale or Storm Signal Logo Gale or storm force wind is expected or blowing generally in Hong Kong near sea level, with a sustained wind speed of 63-117 km/h from the quarter indicated and gusts which may exceed 180 km/h, and the wind condition is expected to persist.

Action - Complete all precautions now before gales commence. Lock all windows and doors. Fit bars into positions and insert reinforced shutters and gates if available. Adhesive tape fixed to large window panes in exposed positions will reduce damage by broken glass.

Do not stand near windows on the exposed side of your home. Move all furniture and valuables away from these areas. Make sure you have a safe place to shelter, should windows be broken. Now is the time to decide which rooms you will use to shelter if the windows on the exposed side of your home become broken.

Owners of neon signs should arrange for the electricity supply to their signs to be switched off.

Park your car where it is least likely to be damaged.

Avoid staying in the street. Return home as soon as possible if conditions so permit.

 The Increasing Gale or Storm Signal No. 9 Logo Gale or storm force wind is increasing or expected to increase significantly in strength.

Action - Stay indoors. Stay away from exposed windows and doors to avoid flying debris. Close all interior doors and make sure children are confined to the least exposed part of your home. Do not touch electrical cables that have been blown loose. You should fix broken windows and doors only when there is no danger in doing so.

If you are away from home, find a safe place and remain there until the danger is over.

 The Hurricane Signal No. 10 Logo Hurricane force wind is expected or blowing with sustained wind speed reaching upwards from 118 km/h and gusts that may exceed 220 km/h.

Action - The same precautions as above apply.

Remember that if the eye of the typhoon passes directly over Hong Kong, there may be a temporary lull lasting a few minutes to several hours. Do not relax your guard, as there will be a sudden resumption of violent winds from a different direction. Remain where you are if protected and be prepared for destructive winds.


Reference for the Issue of No.3 and No.8 Signals

Starting from 2007, the reference for the issue of No.3 and No.8 signals expanded from the Victoria Harbour to a network of eight near-sea level reference anemometers covering the whole of Hong Kong as depicted in the following figure.

 

Network of reference anemometers in the tropical cyclone warning system

The reference anemometers were selected on account of their good exposure and geographical distribution, taking into account the natural separation by Hong Kong’s mountain ranges. Together, they provide a broad picture of the wind condition in Hong Kong.

The No.3 or No.8 signal, as the case may be, will be issued when half or more anemometers in the reference network register or are expected to register sustained strong winds or gale/storm force winds and the wind condition is expected to persist. The wind speed range of the No.3 signal is 41-62 km/h and that of the No.8 signal is 63-117 km/h.

When a tropical cyclone is located relatively far from Hong Kong, occasionally an outer rainband associated with the tropical cyclone might sweep across the territory, bringing squalls which cause transient winds at four or more of the reference anemometers exceeding the prescribed lower thresholds for the issue of No.3 or No.8 signals. In that case, as the wind condition is not expected to persist after the passage of the rainband, the Observatory would not issue the respective signals.


Regional Wind Information

Due to local topography and the built environment, wind condition in different parts of Hong Kong can vary appreciably. A numbered tropical cyclone signal can provide a general warning for the public, but it has an inherent limitation in communicating varying wind speeds at different locations. The public should take note of the regional wind condition and take appropriate response actions.

Currently, the Observatory provides information on regional wind condition on its website (http://www.weather.gov.hk or http://www.hko.gov.hk) and through the Dial-a-Weather service (telephone: 187 8200). It also has special arrangements with individual sectors, such as the marine and aviation sectors, to meet their specific needs. Starting from 2007, the Observatory further enhances the dissemination of regional wind information by highlighting in media broadcast of its tropical cyclone bulletins those areas with wind speeds significantly higher than the general wind condition of Hong Kong. A webpage showing the regional distribution of wind strength was also added to the Observatory’s website with strong and gale force winds presented in an easily comprehensible graphical form. A description of how winds of different forces manifest themselves on land and over the sea is also available on the webpage (http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/ts/wind_gale_e.htm).

Considering that aircraft operations at Chek Lap Kok are mainly affected by crosswinds (i.e. winds blowing towards the aircraft from the side) and the associated windshear and turbulence rather than wind speed per se, in situations when the wind conditions likely to cause significant disruptions to air traffic are expected, the Observatory will add an advisory to its tropical cyclone bulletin that the traveling public check with airlines before departing for the airport commencing 2007. The public should listen to the radio or TV broadcasts or browse the Observatory’s website for information on the tropical cyclone bulletins.

Work and School Arrangements in Tropical Cyclone and Rainstorm Situations

bulletCode of Practice in times of Typhoons and Rainstorms(Labour Department)

bulletTropical Cyclones and Heavy Persistent Rain Arrangements for Kindergartens and Day Schools(Education Bureau)

bulletTropical Cyclones and Heavy Persistent Rain Arrangements for Evening Schools(Education Bureau)

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  1. Binna Choi 2009.06.02 00:16 신고 Address Modify/Delete Reply

    저도 올해 홍콩에서 태풍시그널 8을 처음 경험해 보겠군여, 크리스마스 선물 기다리는 어린애마냥 기대가 되는건 왜일까요? ㅋㅋ

    • Favicon of http://andyjin.com BlogIcon Andy Jin™ 2009.06.02 08:41 신고 Address Modify/Delete

      물론 홍콩에 계신 분들에게 사건 사고가 없어야 겠지만,
      일단 8호가 오면 일찍 집에가거나 회사를 안가서 좋다는.....

      결국엔 소박한 샐러리맨의 Bitter Happiness 죠 뭐.